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No, 53 September, I960 




ONTARIO 



FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 
REPORT 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

Division of Fish and Wildlife 

(These Reports Are for Intra-Departmental Information 
and Not For Publication) 



Hon. J. W. Spooner F. A. MacDougal 

Minister Deputy Minister 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 53 September, I960 



Page 

Report on the Illegal Hunting of Returning Migratory- 
Waterfowl in the 1000 Island Area of the St. 
Lawrence River. - by R. Lome Irvine 1 

Migratory Waterfowl Survey - Hunters* Success, 1959* 

Lindsay District. - by P. W. Swanson 7 

Cottontail Spring Census, Lake Huron District, I960. 

- by R. E. Mason 12 

Aerial Beaver ( Castor canadensis ) Survey in Geraldton 

District in 1959. - by J. Goddard 17 

Live Beaver Trapping Project, Parry Sound District, 

July 17 to September 11, 1959. - by M. G. Loucks 25 

Rabbit, Hare and Fox Harvest, Lake Huron District, 

1959-60. - by R. E. Mason 29 

Simple Method for Removal of Incisors From Moose 

Mandibles. - by J. E. Culliton 37 

Kenora District Moose Observations, 1959-1960. 

- by M. Linklater 39 

Kamloops Trout Rearing Experiment No. 7, Hill's Lake 

Hatchery. - by N, D. Patrick 46 

Winter Fishing, Parry Sound District, 1959. 

- by C, A. Rettie 51 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



- 1- - 

REPORT ON THE ILLEGAL HUNTING OF RETURNING 
MIGRATORY WATERFOWL IN THE 1000 ISLANDS AREA 
OF THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 

by 
R. Lome Irvine 
Conservation Officer 
Ivy Lea, R. R. #1, Lansdowne, Ontario. 

Abstract 

Large scale illegal waterfowl hunting is known to take 
place in the St. Lawrence River area near Gananoque each 
year. In April of I960, Department personnel worked 
in cooperation with R.C.M.P., New York State Game 
Protectors, and United States Department of the Interior 
(Fish and Wildlife Service) game agents to apprehend 
and convict two violators. Ducks seized included 86 
Scaup, six Goldeneyesand one American Merganser. These 
ducks were found abandoned, along with two shotguns, 
14 decoys, one rain cape, ammunition, two bottles of 
aspirin tablets and a bottle of prescription tablets 
bearing the name Freda O'Brien. The latter led to 
initial identification of one violator. Fresh blood 
in his boat was compared with that of the ducks seized. 
Serial numbers on the guns seized were used to check 
ownership at the Canadian Customs office at the One 
Thousand Islands bridge and found to correspond to 
the names of the two accused. Civil settlements were 
made in New York State for $1,250 each. They forfeited 
$200 bail bond for failing to appear in Ontario and 
paid $693 on charges of illegal entry laid by the U. S. 
Customs and Immigration Department. Indications are 
that the ducks were shot for purchase by two U. S. 
clubs. 



Introduction 

Each spring, during the past few years, as the St. Lawrence 
River first starts to open up, a group of hunters from the Alexandria 
Bay, N. Y., area have been hunting ducks on a large scale. This 
operation is performed when a few holes first open up near islands in 
tne middle of the River and it is still frozen, but unsafe, all along 
the shores. They have been using air propeller driven craft that 
operate equally well on ice or water. As a result it has been almost 
impossible, particularly from this side, to apprehend these hunters. 
In the fall of 195$ a meeting was held in my home in Gananoque of the 
following: John H. Buckalew, Game Agent of the U. S. Dept. of the 
Interior of Walcott, N. Y., David S r Dupee, Game Agent of the U. S. 
Dept. of the Interior of Essex Junction, Vermont, John Corbine, Senior 
Game Protector of the New York State Conservation Dept., of Watertown, 
N. Y., Paul Thiebeau, Game Protector of the Mew York State Conservation 



- 2 - 

Dept., W. A. G. Thurston, District Forester, D. 0. Sylvester, Senior 
Conservation Officer, and the writer of the Ontario Department of 
Lands and Forests. Tentative plans were drafted to attempt to 
apprehend these violators during the spring of 1959. Contact was also 
made with the Brockville detachment of the R.C.M.P. and they were 
advised of our plans. 

On April 10, 1959, the U,, S. Department of the Interior 
sent up three Game Agents, two radio equipped cars and a float plane. 
Together with New York State Game Protector Paul Thiebeau we patrolled 
the St. Lawrence River for approximately ten days without success. 
It is believed that the operation was not started soon enough and 
we missed the hunters by two or three days. We planned to meet earlier 
for next spring* 

On March 29, I960, Conservation Officer C. E. Blackman and 
I met with Constable David McCormick, of the R.C.M.P., and John H. 
Buckalew, Game Agent of the U. S. Department of the Interior at the 
Canadian Customs Office on the 1000 Islands Bridge, Lansdowne, Ontario 
and discussed plans for this spring. Agent Buckalew advised that a 
plane would not be available this year as both of their planes were 
grounded for repairs. 

Equipment and Men 

- two unmarked cars equipped with two-way mobile radio sets. 

- one "handy talkie" two-way portable radio. 

- Game Agent John H. Buckalew, Dept. of Interior. 

- Game Agent David S. Dupee, Dept. of Interior. 

- Game Protector Paul Thiebeau, N. Y. Conservation Dept. 

- Conservation Officer R, L. Irvine, Ont. Lands & Forests. 

Method and Operation 

Our plan was that Buckalew and I would patrol the Canadian 
side of the River and Dupee would patrol the U. S. side of the River. 
Thiebeau was to stay at home with his vehicle, so that if the hunters 
checked they would believe him to be off duty. Dupee was to telephone 
him as soon as any hunting commenced . Also to avoid detection Dupee 
would take up temporary residence at V/atertown rather than Clayton, 
as the Agents did last year, and Buckalew would cross over to Canada 
at Ogdensburg and Prescott so as not to be seen near the Alexandria 
:ray and Clayton areas that he would have to pass through in order to 
cross the 1000 Islands Bridgs. 

Commencing late in March I patrolled along the St. Lawrence 
River watching for the ice to start breaking up and for the ducks to 
start returning. On April 1, I960, the Canadian ice breaker cleared 
a channel from Prescott to Kingston and the River was open from 
Prescott to Brockville. On April 2 I telephoned Agent Buckalew and 
recommended that they come up by Monday April k t as holes were opening 
up in the usual shooting area. He advised that they would be up late 
in the afternoon of the 4th. 



- 3 - 

On April 5th, Agent Buckalew and I commenced patrolling the 
Canadian side of the River at 5s 30 a.m. We took up a position on a 
high point overlooking Brown's Bay at about 6 a.m. The weather over 
the River at that time was foggy. At approximately 7 a.m. a number 
of shots were heard from the River, in the vicinity of the Amateur 
Islands group off Brown's Bay. Radio contact with Agent Dupee on the 
U. S. side revealed that he heard shooting from the same area. He 
then telephoned Protector Thiebeau and arranged for Agent Buckalew 
and me to meet him on the U. S. side of the 1000 Islands Bridge. We 
then crossed into the U, S. and picked him up and proceeded down the 
River to meet with Agent Dupee. At approximately £s00 a.m. the River 
fog began to lift and we observed two men shooting from Robinson 
Island, which is on the Canadian side of the River. 

These men were kept under observation until approximately 
2s00 p.m., at which time they picked up their decoys and headed toward 
Alexandria Bay, N. Y. They had only gone a short distance when it 
appeared that they had motor trouble as they commenced to row their 
boat. They continued rowing it to Dark Island, where they picked 
up another motor and continued on up the River toward Alexandria Bay. 
Agent Buckalew, Protector Thiebeau and I proceeded to the vicinity 
of Alexandria Bay and took up different positions as we did not know 
where the hunters might land. When their boat had passed from his 
vision Agent Dupee also proceeded to Alexandria Bay. By this time the 
boat was now in sight of us near Alexandria Bay. 

As the boat approached to within approximately a half mile 
from Alexandria Bay it turned in toward the New York shore. As it 
went in behind a point of land we immediately attempted to intercept 
the landing. However as there are several points along the shore 
(and not all available by roads) we missed them at the actual point 
of landing and they dumped their equipment and ducks ashore. When 
we located this equipment the hunters had continued on to Alexandria 
Bay. At the point of landing we found 93 ducks (£6 Scaup, six 
Goldeneyes and one American Merganser), two Winchester 12 gauge pump 
shotguns, 14 decoys, one rain cape, a metal tool box containing a 
number of live shotgun shells, and a canvas bag containing a number 
of live shotgun shells, a duck call, two bottles of aspirin tablets 
and a bottle of prescription tablets with the name of Freda O'Brien, 
the wife of one of the suspected violators typed on it. All of these 
items were seized and we returned to Alexandria Bay. 

We then went to the home of Gordon Charles O'Brien, one 
of the suspects, and questioned his activities during the day. He 
gave alibis that did not stand up under investigation. We went to his 
Marina and checked his boat and found fresh blood in it and two motors 
attached to it. Samples of this blood were taken and later sent to the 
F.B.I. , in Washington for analysis along with samples taken from the 
ducks. Agent Buckalew and I then returned to Canada. 

On April 6th, Agent Buckalew and I went to Brockville and 
advised the R.C.M.P. of the events of the previous day. We then went 
to the Canadian Customs office on the 1000" Islands Bridge and checked 



- 4 - 

gun registrations by U. S. hunters crossing into Canada last fall. 
One of the guns seized was found to be registered to Gordon Charles 
O'Brien, of Alexandria Bay, N. Y. We then proceeded to Clayton and 
met with Agent Dupee and Protector Thiebeau, who had gone to Robinson 
Island and picked up several freshly fired 12 gauge shotgun shells and 
two freshly opened shotgun shell cartons. They had also gone to Dark 
Island and questioned two men as to the identity of the two men who 
had stopped there on April 5th to pick up an outboard motor. In 
the evening I telephoned Officer C. D„ Thompson of Westport, my 
immediate superior and advised him of the events that had taken place. 
I received telephone calls from both the Canadian Press and the Toronto 
Daily Star of Toronto. Information was given, excluding any names. 
Reports appeared in all of the local newspapers, radio stations and 
T.V. stations on both sides of the border as well as the Toronto Daily 
Star, The Toronto Globe and Mail and radio stations C.F.R.B. and C.B.L. 
of Toronto. 

On April 8th, Officer Thompson and I met in Brockville and 
discussed the events with Mr. H. Atkinson, the Crown Attorney. 

In the meantime I had heard that Cyriel Heath of Alexandria 
Bay, N. Y., was the other hunter with O'Brien so on April 10th I 
called Protector Thiebeau and arranged to meet him at the Canadian 
Customs office on the 1000 Islands Bridge and we checked the gun 
registrations and found that the other gun seized was registered to 
Heath. Thiebeau then telephoned Buckalew and gave him this informa- 
tion. 

On April 12th, the guns, tool box, empty shells, shell 
cartons, medicine bottle and blood samples were turned over to Agent 
Samuel T. Miller for delivery to the F.B.I. laboratory in Washington 
for examination, where they were delivered on April 13, I960. 

On April 13, Agent Buckalew and Protector Thiebeau contacted 
the two residents of Dark Island and had them verify the identities of 
the two men who had stopped and picked up the outboard motor on April 
5th. They then questioned Cyriel Dingman Heath of Alexandria Bay, 
who made a full confession of the hunting trip. They then offered them 
a Civil Settlement with the New York State Conservation Department of 
^2,500.00 ($1,250.00 each). Heath accepted this offer and agreed to 
see that O'Brien accepted and that both he and O'Brien were to appear on 
April 27th at the Watertown office of the New York State Conservation 
Department and make settlement. 

On April 13th Protector Thiebeau telephoned and made arrange- 
ments to meet me in Clayton and then attend the settlement on April 
27th. I telephoned Officer Thompson and arranged for him to also 
attend. 

On April 2 5th, Officer Thompson and I again met with Crown 
Attorney Atkinson in Brockville and he drew up a charge of illegal 
duck hunting under Section 5 (l) (a) of the Migratory Birds Convention 
Act. We then went to the Magistrate's Court in Brockville and I laid 
informations against O'Brien and Heath with Miss M. Louch, J, P., as 



- 5 - 

advised by the Crown Attorney*. Hearing was set for 10 a.m., May 6th, 
I960 in Magistrate's Court, Brockville. The Crown Attorney also 
recommended that we accept a bail bond of $200 00, plus $2.50 court 
costs, each at the time of serving the summonses should they indicate 
that they wished to settle out of court and not appear. 

On April 27th Officer Thompson and I went to the New York 
State Conservation Department office in Watertown, N. Y, and met with 
John Corbine, Paul Thiebeau, John Buckalew. We witnessed the signing 
of confessions by Heath and O'Brien and their payment of the American 
fines of -$1,250.00 each. Later I served them with our summonses and 
accepted a bail bond of $200.00 plus $2.50 court costs each as they 
each advised that they wished to settle out of court and would not 
appear on May 6th in the Magistrate's Court in Brockville. 

On May 3rd, Mr. Archie R. Denner, Customs Agent in charge 
U. S. Treasury Department of Ogdensburg, N. Y. called at my home to 
secure information re the activities of O'Brien and Heath on April 5th, 
and he advised that his department intended laying charges of illegal 
entry or smuggling against the two men. 

On May 6, I960, I went to Magistrate's Court in Brockville 
and since neither O'Brien nor Heath appeared, I pleaded guilty on their 
behalf in accordance with bail bond forms 03491 and 03492 signed by 
Heath and O'Brien respectively on April 27th. After hearing my 
evidence, Magistrate Gordon H. Jermyn found them guilty and ordered 
their bail bonds forfeited. Later that day while advising the R.C.M.P. 
at their office in Brockville of events in the case, the Immigration 
Officer in charge of this area came in and upon looking up the Canada 
Immigration Act we found that under Section 5 (d) these two men are 
automatically barred from entering Canada for a period of five years. 
He advised that in view of this his Department would not deem it 
necessary to lay any charges against them. 

On May 11th, Protector Paul Thiebeau telephoned me from 
Clayton, N, Y. and advised that on May 10th Heath and O'Brien had been 
convicted of illegal entry and that they had been fined a total of 
i693»00 and that their aluminum boat and two Mercury outboard motors 
had been seized by the U. S. Customs and Immigration. 

Conclusions 

It is evident to the writer that it is necessary to have 
complete cooperation from all enforcement agencies on both sides 
of the border. We are indeed fortunate that such a situation exists. 
It is believed that from the favourable and complete press, radio and 
T.V. coverage received of the events and fines concerning this case 
that an end may have been put to the illegal hunting of returning 
waterfowl in this and other areas. However, plans for next spring 
have been discussed between the two U. S. Agencies and myself as there 
is a possibility that it may be attempted again. Information that 
I have received indicates that these ducks were shot for purchase by 
two U. S. Clubs in the vicinity of Watertown and Utica, N. Y. and that 



- 6 - 

these clubs assisted financially in the payment of the fines. 

Total Fines 

New York State Conservation Department $2500.00 

U. S. Customs and Immigration 693 o 00 

Ontario Department Lands and Forests (incl. exchange) 421.70 

#3614.70 

In addition to the above fines these men lost an aluminum boat and 
two Mercury outboard motors. 

Acknowledgments 

In addition to the U. S. Game Agencies directly involved 
I wish to thank the Brockville detachment of the R.C.K.P. and Mr. 
John Conley and his Customs staff at Lansdowne, 0nt o , for their ex- 
cellent cooperation. I also wish to thank all of the press, radio and 
T.V. stations for their excellent cooperation and coverage of events. 
The resulting publicity will certainly be a deterrent to anyone 
contemplating a similar violation. 



- 7 - 

MIGRATORY WATERFOWL SURVEY - 
HUNTERS 9 SUCCESS, 1959, LINDSAY DISTRICT 

by 
P„ W, Swanson 



Abstract 

A waterfowl checking station was in operation on the 
opening day of the 1959 duck hunting season at Presqu'ile 
Provincial Park, Some 55 hunters bagged 85 ducks for 
a hunters* success of lo55 ducks per hunter. This 
compared favourably with the 195$ season when 47 hunters 
secured 72 ducks for a hunters' success of 1.53 ducks 
per hunter. Tables showing a random overall seasonal 
success rate for the Kawartha Lakes area are also 
presented. 



A migratory waterfowl checking station was operated at the 
entrance to Presqu'ile Provincial Park on opening day of the 1959 
season. The purpose of this checking station was to check for game 
law infractions and to obtain data on hunters 9 success, species 
composition, age and sex ratios of the bag. This was a continuation 
of studies initiated during the 195$ season. 

A total of 55 hunters were checked having a bag of $5 
ducks, giving a hunter success of 1.55 ducks per hunter. This compares 
favourably with the 195$ season when 47 hunters bagged 72 ducks for 
a hunter success of 1.53 ducks per hunter. 

To supplement this information several conservation officers 
recorded the kill of hunters encountered in the inland waters of their 
patrol areas. These data were also compiled on waterfowl checking 
station cards. 

The following Tables I, II and V show the opening day results 
of the 195$ and 1959 season for Presqu'ile Park and of the 1959 season 
in part of Haliburton County. Tables III and IV show a random over- 
all seasonal success rate for the Kawartha Lakes area. 

Lake Ontario (Presqu'ile Park) 

k Table! Hunters' Success - 1.53 ducks 195$ 

k Table II Hunters' Success - 1.55 ducks 1959 



Inland Waters (Random Sample) 



x Table III 
Table IV 
Table V 



Hunters* Success 
Hunters' Success 
Hunters 9 Success 



1.54 ducks 
0.76 ducks 
0.74 ducks 



1959 
1959 
1959 



x Based on these reports with the exception of Table III the duck 
season inland was not as productive as at Presqu'ile Park. 



TABLE I - Opening Day. - 195 3 Season - Presgu'ile Park 







kales 




Fecial- 


es 


Total 
27 




Species 


Adult - 
6 


Juv. 
8 


Adult - 
4 


Juv. 
9 


% of Kill 


Green-winged Teal 


37.5 


Black 


10 


4 


4 


2 


20 


27.8 


Blue-winged Teal 


3 


2 


4 


2 


11 


15-3 


Mallard 


1 


1 


1 


- 


3 


4»2 


Wood 


- 


3 


- 


- 


3 


4*2 


"Widgeon 


- 


- 


- 


3 


3 


4.2 


Lesser Scaup 


- 


- 


- 


2 


2 


2.8 


Redhead 


- 


- 


- 


2 


2 


2.8 


Greater Scaup 


- 


- 


1 


- 


1 


1.4 


Total 


20 


18 


14 


20 


72 


100 2 



uumoer uucks Daggeci ........ oa.......«.......oo....o..e..s 1 d. 

Number hunters checked 47 

Number ducks per hunter 1.53 

Number man hours hunted 226 

Number man hours hunted per duck 3.1 

Number cripples lost «... 13 

r»u.irioer crippj.es recovered .o.o.r. ...cjco.«o'>eo...acieoa.aa.o niJL 
nuuiuer Qogs used >«oo.«o. •«•<>•. .............ooa.o... •*..... j. 



- 9 - 



TABLE II - Opening 


Day - 


1959 Season - Presqu ? ile 


Park 






















I. 


iales 


F email 


3S 


Total 

32 
28 

14 
8 

3 


& 




Species 


Adult - Juv. 

11 6 

13 7 

4 6 

3 1 

3 


Adult - 

7 
6 
1 
3 


Juv. 

3 

2 

3 

1 


of Kill 


Blue-winged Teal 

Black 

Kallard 

Green-winged Teal 

Wood 


37.6 

32.9 

16.5 

9.4 

3.5 


Total 


34 


20 


17 


14 


35 




99.9 



Number ducks bagged . .. , ........•„ 85 

Number hunters checked . . ... 55 

Number ducks per hunter ... .... a ... 1.55 

Number man hours hunted . 292 

Number man hours hunted per duck 3*4 

Number cripples lost . . O .o . 22 

Number cripples recovered 2 

Number dogs used „. • 3 

TABLE III - Random Sample of Hunters* Success September 19 

to October 17? 1959, Townships of Harvey, Verulam, 
Galway and Emily. 



Species 



Black 
Wood 

Blue-winged Teal 

Mallard 

Lesser Scaup 

Pintail 

Ring Neck 

W. W. Scoter 



Total 



kales 



Females 



Adult - Juv. Adult - Juv. Total % of Kill 



7 

4 

11 

8 

4 

2 

1 



20 
14 
11 
11 



1 

1 



4 
3 



32 

22 

22 

19 

4 

3 

2 

1 



37 



59 



7 



105 



30.5 

21.0 

21.0 

18.1 

3.8 

2.9 

1.9 

1.0 



100.2 



i\iu. LiucKs uaggeQ ....«»•« .....*•• .......... ............... -LU5 

Number hunters checked 68 

Number ducks per hunter 1.54 

Number man hours hunted 2.61 

Number man hours per duck » 2.5 

Number cripples recovered . • •••••••• 1 

Number cripples lost „ 25 

Number dogs used 10 



- 10 - 



TABLE IV - Random Sample of Hunters' Success September 19 

to October 3> 1959* Townships of Mariposa, Emily 
and Fenelon. 



Males 



Females 



Total 



18 



4 



29 



Species 


Adult - 
9 


- Juv. 
1 


Adult - 
3 


- Juv. 


Total 
13 


% of K 


Mallard 


44 * 8 


Black 


7 


1 


1 


2 


11 


37.9 


Green-winged Teal 


1 


1 


1 


- 


3 


10.3 


Wood 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


3.4 


Blue-winged Teal 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


3.4 



99.3 



Number ducks bagged 29 

Number hunters checked 3$ 

Number ducks per hunter 0.76 

Number man hours hunted .....•.,. ,,.., 17$ 

Number man hours per duck 6.1 

Number cripples recovered nil 

Number cripples lost 49 

Number dogs used • 4 



TABLE V - Random Sample of Hunters' Success Opening Day of Season 
1959» Townships of Dysart , Guilford and Dudley. 







hales 




F email 


2S 


Total 
19 

2 
2 


fo 




Species 


Adult - 

5 
1 


Juv. 

9 
3 

2 

14 


Adult - 

1 
1 


Juv. 

4 
4 
1 


of Kill 


Black 

Green-winged Teal 
l allard 
Wood 


61,3 
25.8 

6,4 
6.4 


Total 


6 


2 


9 


31 




99.9 



I'iUiiioer qucks uaggeQ .... ,0.000. ...........•.,,.<]. ......... jx. 

iiUinoer nunoers cnecKeo. .0.0.0, ,,,,,,,0,00,,,,,,, ,,••,,. ..o l^c. 

Number ducks per hunter . « . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , . » , =» 0.74 

Number man hours hunted ,..,.... 109. 5 

Number man hours hunted per duck 3 « 5 

Number cripples lost • $ 

Number cripples recovered nil 

Number dogs used ,,..,.. 2 (Labs) 



- 11 - 



Acknowledgment 



The valuable assistance and co-operation of the following 
personnel is gratefully acknowledged. P. J. Kennedy, Park 
Superintendent, Presqu 9 ile, Conservation Officers R. C. McCulloch, 
J. Bradshaw, R. D. Dyke, J. H. Scott and R. K. Simpson. 



- 12 - 

COTTONTAIL SPRING CENSUS, 
LAKE HURON DISTRICT, I960 

by 
R, E. Mason 

Abstract 

A roadside census was conducted in Lake Huron District 
to obtain indices of relative abundance of the spring 
cottontail population. Methods and timing of the 
census are discussed. Because of the extremely heavy 
snowfall in March the length of the census had to be 
curtailed somewhat but in a total of 42 transects 
representing 210 miles, 17 cottontails were observed. 
The density index of the breeding population of cotton- 
tails was 0.40 t 0.16 (cottontails per five mile 
transect). Certain advantages to be derived from 
changing the spring early morning census to that of 
a night spot-light census are pointed out. It is 
concluded that if early morning spring counts are to 
be retained, at least I65 transects would be required 
to adequately census the cottontail population. 



Contributing Personnel 

R. R. Bellinger, H. J. Gingrich, C. F. Liddle, F. H. Merner, 
C. A. Wolfe, H. W. Clark, C. V. Horton, G. C. Matthews, R. M. Reid. 

I ntroduction 

Indices of relative abundance of spring cottontail popula- 
tions is considered desirable to further understand the population 
dynamics of the species. In combination with the July census of 
reproductive success, relationships to hunting success, meteorologi- 
cal effects, and relative reproduction may be documented on a long 
term basis. Collection of reliable population information is also 
a prerequisite in obtaining support for positive management programs. 

Methods 

Roadside counts were chosen for the census as information 
could be gathered over the major cottontail range with less expendi- 
ture at man power than could be used in any of the several marking 
techniques applicable to more limited areas. Also roadside counts 
produce a reliable index to population density, as revealed in 
relative hunting success, and measurements of absolute cottontail 
densities are not required for our purposes (Wight 1959) ° 



- 13 - 

Early morning counts were chosen over evening counts mainly 
because of results obtained by Newman (1959) > and because of the 
success of district early morning counts in July 1959 » K Newman 
reported 70% of all rabbits seen during comparable early morning and 
evening counts were seen in the former, based on 520 observations 
made from January through March, Daily and seasonal timing of the 
counts were chosen to agree as closely as possible with the factors 
listed by Newman o These factors ares 

(1) Starting time one hour before sunrise. 

(2) Census scheduled for late February or early March. 

(3) Snow cover present, although this factor has less positive effect 
on morning than on evening count s« 

(4) Light frost present. 

(5) Winds under 10 m.p.h. 

(6) Heavy and or light fog during the counts, or rain preceding the 
counts increased number of rabbits seen. This factor was quite 
variable during the district census, as conditions varied from 
clear through overcast, fog, and rain, to snow. 

Cloud cover and barometric pressure was not found by 
Newman to significantly affect roadside counts, although a negative 
association is expected in the latter case. 

In addition to the above factors, observations were recor- 
ded in five mile transects to assist in statistical analysis. 
Routes were pre chosen by officers to cover a minimum of three 
transects per morning through cottontail habitat. Cottontail 
habitat was not defined, this being left to the officer and his 
knowledge of his patrol area. Individual transects were not nec- 
essarily continuous. Speeds driven were variable depending on road 
conditions but probably averaged 15-20 m.p.h. Routes were selected 
to cover as much of the patrol area as possible. 

R esults 

A total of 42 transects were driven representing 210 miles. 
Seventeen cottontails were observed or 0.40 cottontails per transect. 
Other observations recorded by officers were as follows? 

1 swan, 60 geese, 103 ducks (blacks, mallards, buffleheads, mergansers, 
wood ducks), 2 deer, 13 European hare, 5 Raccoons, 26 mourning doves, 

2 pheasants, 1 muskrat , 1 snowshoe hare. 



See Mason, R, E. Census for cottontail rabbits, Lake Huron 
District, 195B-59, Fish and Wildlife Management Report No. 49, 
November 1, 1959. 



- 14 - 

TABLE I - Cottontail Observations Per Transect 

Incidence of Observation Number of Transects 

31 

1 7 

2 2 

3 2 



Because of extremely heavy snowfall during the first half 
of March, original timing of the census had to be postponed as road- 
side snowbanks restricted observation. Once commenced, the census 
was cancelled after two mornings of observation, although some officers 
completed three mornings. The cancellation resulted from extreme 
flooding, poor road conditions, and lack of positive observations. 

TABLE II - Cottontail Observations According to Weather Factors. 



Number Number Observations 

Weather Factor Transects Observations Per Transect 

Clear 21 7 

Fog through rain 12 5 

Snowing 9 5 



0, 


.33 


0, 


,42 


0, 


.56 



In this table, clear, refers to a lack of precipitation, 
although the sky may or may not have been overcast. Despite the 
small sample, it is interesting to note the general agreement with 
Newman* s findings. At least partial snow cover was present on 27 
transects, reporting 12 observations (0.44 per transect). Ground was 
recorded as bare on 1$ transects, reporting five observations (0„33 
per transects). Here again the data agree with Newman 

Temperatures recorded during the survey ranged from 2 5 
to 33°F with a mean of 29.7 F o Wind velocity estimates ranged from 
to 20 m„poh. with only three transects reporting winds over 10 
m.p.h. 

Discussion 

Despite the few positive observations and contrary to 
earlier expectations, the survey, which was terminated before having 
been completed as scheduled, was fairly successful when considered 
on a district basis. With the variation encountered in the census 
the true value of the mean (per transect) is 0.40 t 0.16 at the $0% 
confidence level. 

Using the same confidence level, the variation encountered 
in this census would indicate that 165 plots or 525 miles are required 
to adequately census the cottontail population. Assuming eight men 
are used on the survey, and three transects or 15 miles are covered 



- 15 - 

per morning, a total of seven mornings per man would be required . 
Had the original operational plan not been modified because of 
adverse weather and road conditions and premature conclusions on the 
success of the survey, this condition would have been met« However 
changing the technique may improve on those conditions which resulted 
in the cancellation of the census before its completion. 

Lord (1959) reports more observations from night counts of 
cottontails than from early morning counts except during May through 
to August inclusive. Morning counts too are limited because of 
decreased cottontail activity with increasing light conditions. This 
limits the area which can be covered in any one morning, but would 
not apply to night censusing. 

The apparent discrepency between Lord's results and those 
of Newman may be explained because of differential timing. Lord ? s 
observation period did not start until at least one hour after dark, 
and headlights were used in conjunction with a spotlight for observa- 
tions. Newman's counts commenced one-half hour before sunset, at 
which time few cottontails could be considered active. 

Night counts would have the added advantage in that the 
timing seasonally would not have to be so precise, and the census 
period could be delayed until possible flooding and poor road condi- 
tions were not a hazard, provided that the delay did not extend into 
May. The meteorological conditions according to Newman should still 
be considered in timing the census period. 

The use of a spotlight may require employing two men crews. 
This is a disadvantage when considering the time required to census 
the area, but could probably be compensated for by increasing the 
number of transects to be covered in a single night, since increasing 
light conditions would not be limiting. 

S ummary and Conclusions 

(1) Density index of breeding population of cottontails is 0.40 t 
0.16 (cottontails per five mile transect) . 

(2) It is suggested that the spring early morning cottontail census 
in this district be changed to a night spot-light census. In 
scheduling the census consideration should be given to the 
meteorological and other considerations used in the early 
morning counts. 

(3) If early morning spring counts are to be retained, at least 165 
transects will be required to adequately census the population, 
based on variation encountered in this survey. 



- 16 - 

R eferences 

Geis, Aelred D., 1955. Effect of Trap Response On Cottontail Census. 
Jour. Wildl. Mgt. 19 (4). 

Lord, Rexford D., Jr., 1959. A Method For Measuring Mortality of 
Cottontail Rabbits In Winter, Jour. Wildl. Mgt. 23 (2). 

Lord, Rexford D , Jr., 1959. Comparison Of Early Morning and Spot- 
light Roadside Censuses for Cottontails. Jour. Wildl. Mgt. 
23 (4). 

Newman, Duane E., 1959. Factors Influencing the "Winter Roadside 
Count of Cottontails. Jour. Wildl. Mgt, 23 (3). 

Peterle, Tony J., and Lee Eberhardt, 1959. Is the Lincoln Index 

Reliable for Cottontail Censusing. Mich. Dept. Cons., Fed. 
Pro. W-40-R, W-96-R. 

Wight, Howard, 1959. Eleven Years of Rabbit - Population Data In 
Missouri. Jour. Wildl. Mgt., 23 (1). 



Appendix 

Number of Observations Frequency 

31 

1 7 

2 2 

3 2 



Total number transects - 42 (210 miles) 

Total number observations - 17 

Mean per transect - 0.404 t 0.16 

Mean per mile - 0.081 

(x = 17 (( x) 2 /n = 6.88 

(x 2 =33 s = 0.798 

<x/n m= 0.40 

confidence limits *■ t.2 x s 

x " \rfr 

estimate sample size m - (t.2) x s 

" (0.2 x_ )* 
x 



- 17 - 

AERIAL BEAVER ( Castor canadensis ) 
SURVEY IN GERALDTON DISTRICT IN 1959 

by 
J. Goddard 

abstract 

The purpose of this survey was to make an aerial count 
of beaver houses in Geraldton District. As a result 
of two transects flown on October 28-29, the number of 
active beaver colonies in 1959 appeared to have level- 
led off and were approximately the same as in 195&» 
A series of forms showing the various timber types are 
presented, A four year comparison of living beaver 
colonies showed a steady increase from 1956 to 195$» 
Recommendations are offered for future surveys. 



To provide figures and results on the 1959 Aerial Beaver 
House Count and to compare results obtained in 1959 with those 
obtained in previous years. 

Date surveyed 

October 28-29, 1959. 

Flight Crew 



— u 



C. J. Kirk - Pilot 

Wo L. MacKinnon - Timber recorder 

John Gow - Left observer 

John Macfie) _.. . . , 

John Goddard) " Rl S ht observers 

Two transects were flown on the aerial beaver survey in 
1959o One was flown over the northern course, the course that was 
established in 1958 and results were compared for the two years. As 
in previous years, John Gov/ was observer on the left side, with John 
Goddard on the right. The other transect was flown over the estab- 
lished southern route which consists of six laps and the 
results obtained here were compared with previous years. On the 
southern' route John Gow was observing the right side and John Macfie 
on the left. In previous years Gow had been observing the left side. 
However, due to certain weather conditions, etc., the south transect 
was flown in the reverse direction as flown to previous years. 
Actually, therefore, Gow was observing the same side as he had done 
in previous years. In order to avoid confusion Gow is classified as 
left observer as in previous years. 



- id - 

Timber types were recorded as in previous years and are 
shown on the forms that appear at the back of this report. Results 
of the 1959 survey are shown on the forms provided and compared 
with those obtained for previous years in Table I. 

C onclusions 

(a) Southern Route 

1. From results obtained on the right side of the aircraft, there 
appears to have been a steady increase in the number of living 
beaver colonies from 1956-195$. In 1959 the number of living 
colonies appears to have levelled off, 1959 results being 
approximately the same as those for 1958. A very similar result 
is obtained from the left side of the transect line, a very 
slight increase being apparent in 1959. 

2. The interpretation of the word "water" seems to be fairly 
consistent among all observers. 

3. There continues to be about twice as many living colonies recorded 
on the left side of the aircraft as for the right. This is 
believed to be due to; 

A. the interpretation of different terms shown on the form. 

B. Optimism or pessimism on the part of one or all observers. 

C. The necessity of making a snap decision for the different 
terms used under what might be considered an active beaver 
colony. 

(b) Northern Route 

1. There does not appear to be any increase in the number of living 
colonies of 1958 and those seen in 1959 from results obtained 

on the right side of the aircraft. There appears to be a 
definite increase on the left, however. 

2, There is a tremendous difference in the interpretation of the 
word "water" over the two years on the right side of the air- 
craft. The left side provides fairly consistent results. 

R ecommendations 

Due to the extreme variation among observers as to the 
interpretation of different kinds of living colonies, it is suggested 
that if 'the census -is planned for next year that a single crew conduct 
the Provincial Census, if this is at all possible, or possibly fewer 
crews on a regional basis is an attempt to provide more consistant 
results and narrow the range of interpretation of terms. 



- 19 - 

Due to an unusual early freeze-up this year, the survey 
(unavoidably) was conducted when some of the waterways of the tran- 
sect were already covered with ice. It is quite feasible, therefore, 
that many food piles or other signs of beaver presence, were missed 
in the survey. If this is the case, then possibly the beaver 
population has continued to increase, but it is feasible that the 
population has actually levelled off, which is apparent from the 
figures in Table I, at least on the right side of the aircraft, both 
on the northern and southern routes. 



Notes A map showing locations of the northern and southern 

transects in Geraldton District accompanied this report. 



- 20 - 



TABLE I - Aerial Beaver House Count In Geraldton District ■ 
Table To Show Comparisons of Total Living Beaver 
Colonies In 1956, 1957, 1958 and 1959. 

A. Southern Route 



Lap Number 



Year Side of Count Flight _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 Total Average 



1956 


Right 




1st 


2 


6 


6 


3 





2 


19 : 


"16 








2nd 





3 


7 





2 


1 


13 ; 




1957 


Right 




1st 


6 


6 


9 


4 


4 


2 


31 


31 


1958 


Right 




1st 


13 


8 


13 


10 


10 


3 


57 ; 










2nd 


13 


12 


10 


3 


6 


6 


50 : 


53.5 


1959 


Right 






9 


13 


14 


5 


5 


2 


48 


48 


1957 


Right 


(Water) 


1st 


35 


17 


46 


46 


45 


16 


205 ! 




1958 


Right 


(Water) 


1st 


40 


23 


49 


48 


48 


23 


231 ! 


228 








2nd 


42 


37 


59 


45 


43 


26 


2 52 




1959 


Right 


(Water) 


1st 


32 


25 


46 


41 


36 


26 


206 




1956 


Left 




1st 


7 


4 


13 


8 


1 


2 


35 ' 


I 34 








2nd 


4 


6 


4 


9 


6 


4 


33 ' 




1957 


Left 




1st 


2 


6 


13 


2 


1 


2 


26 


26 


1958 


Left 




1st 


11 


18 


26 


17 


24 


10 


106 ' 


\ 102 








2nd 


14 


17 


25 


17 


20 


5 


98 


1959 


Left 




1st 


26 


21 


36 


20 


5 


8 


116 


116 


1957 


Left 


(Water) 


1st 


32 


23 


49 


36 


32 


9 


181 




1958 


Left 


(Water) 


1st 


27 


26 


47 


40 


50 


25 


215 


1 193 




Left 


(Water) 


2nd 


34 


25 


52 


36 


43 


15 


205 




1959 


Left 


(Water) 


1st 


44 


32 


50 


35 


41 


22 


224 





B. Northern Route 



1958 
1959 


Right 
Right 


1st 
1st 


8 
7 


2 

8 


5 
7 


14 
6 


14 - 
16 - 


43 

44 


43 
44 


1958 
1959 


Left 
Left 


1st 
1st 


8 
13 


5 
7 


5 
7 


11 
16 


21 - 
28 - 


50 
71 


50 
71 


1958 
1959 


Right (Water) 
Right (Water) 


1st 
1st 


27 
19 


16 

8 


17 
13 


37 

14 


65 - 
36 - 


162 
90 


162 

90 


1958 
1959 


Left ('Water) 
Left (Water) 




24 
26 


16 
17 


15 
15 


25 

28 


56 - 

57 - 


136 
143 


136 
143 



- 21 - 

Notes Transect line #6 was surveyed on October 2$, 1959 with John 

Goddard, as observer. Transect line #'s 1-5 were surveyed on 
October 29, 1959* with John Macfie as observer. 



AERIaL CENSUS OF ACTIVE BEAVER COLONIES 

DISTRICT Geraldton-South DATE October 2^-29, 1959 

TIME 10; 50 A.M. - 1;10 P.M. 

SIDE OF PLANE _ Right OBSERVER John Macfie and John Goddard 



WEATHER (Wind, Haze, etc.) Transect #6 surveyed in sunny and clear 
weather. Transects 1-5 surveyed in overcast weather. 



Active Lodge 

Transect With Active Lodge Food Pile Active 
(Forest Type) Food Pile Alone Alone Pond Water 



Mixedwood 
S^ predominant 
1. with some 
cutover 



Mixedwood 
with large 
2. areas of 
cutover 



Mixedwood 

3 O OlQg P j , P 



4 



1 



1 



1 



9 



32 



25 



46 



Mixedwood 
4. Sb and Pj 
some cutover 



1 



41 



Predominantly 
5e Mixedwood 
some solid 
areas of S^ 



Mostly S D and 
Pj, some mixed 
and cutover 



1 



36 



26 



- 22 - 

Notes Transect line #6 was surveyed on October 28, 1959. 

The remaining five transects were surveyed on October 29 f 1959. 

AERIAL CENSUS OF ACTIVE BEAVER COLONIES 

DISTRICT Geraldton-South DaTE October 28-29, 1959 

TIME 10; 50 A.M. - 1;10 P.M. 

SIDE OF PLANE Left OBSERVER John Gow 

WEATHER (Wind, Haze, etc.) Transect #6 surveyed in sunny and clear 
weather. Transects 1-5 surveyed in overcast weather. 



Active Lodge 
Transect with Active Lodge Food Pile Active 
(Forest Types) Food Pile Alone Alone Pond Water 

Mixedwood 
1. Sb predominant 10 - 2 14 44 

with some 
cutover 



Mixedwood 
2. with large 8 1 - 12 32 

areas of 
cutover 



Mixedwood 
3. S b , P-j, P 19 3 - 14 50 



Mixedwood 
4. S b and Pj 10 - 10 35 



some cutover 



Predominantly 
mixedwood 
5. some solid - - 5 41 

areas of S, b 



Mostly Sb and 



Pj, Some 

6. mixed & cut- 3 - 5 22 

over 



- 23 - 



AERIAL CENSUS OF ACTIVE BEAVER COLONIES 



DISTRICT Geraldton-North 



SIDE OF PLANE Right 



DATE October 28, 1959 

TIME 11; 45 A.M. - 2g24 P.M. 
OBSERVER John Goddard 



WEATHER (Wind, Haze, etc.) Ceiling and visibility unlimited. 
Light wind. 



Active Lodge 
Transect With Active Lodge Food Pile Active 
(Forest Type) Food Pile Alone Alone Pond Water 



Mixedwood 
75% coniferous 
1. Mainly S D 
Some P-; 



Treed 
2. muskeg 



19 



8 



Treed 
3. muskeg 



13 



Coniferous 
4« mainly Sb 
some Pi 



4 



14 



Mixedwood 
mainly Sb & 
5. Pj with some 
Po & cutover. 



10 



36 



- 24 - 



AERIAL CENSUS OF ACTIVE BEaVER COLONIES 



DISTRICT Geraldton-North 



SIDE OF PLANE 



Left 



DATE October 28, 1959 

TIME 11; 45 A.M. - 2-24 P.M. 



OBSERVER 



John Gow 



WEATHER (Wind, Haze, etc) Ceiling and visibility unlimited. 
Light wind. 



Transect 
(Forest Type) 

Mixedwood 75% 
coniferous 
1. mainly Sb 
some Pi 



Treed 
2. muskeg 



Active Lodge 

With Active Lodge Food Pile Activ; 
Food Pile Alone Alone Pond 



Water 



26 



17 



Treed 
3 . muskeg 



15 



Coniferous 
4. mainly Sb 
some Pi 



28 



Mixedwood 
mainly Sb and 
5* Pi with some 
Po & cutover 



11 



16 



57 



- 25 - 

LIVE BEAVER TRAPPING PROJECT 
PaRRY SOUND DISTRICT, JULY 17 TO SEPTEioBER 11, 1959 

by 

h« G. Loucks 

Abstract 

Some 83 nuisance beavers were trapped from the C.N.R. 
right of way and other nuisance areas along Highway 
69» Of these 5$ were sexed and aged as follows : 20 
adult males$ 19 adult females and 19 kits. After 
being ear tagged and tattooed these animals were air- 
lifted and released in lakes located 24 to 43 miles 
south of Big Trout Lake in Patricia District. Trapping 
and tagging methods and costs of the operation are 
discussed. 



This project was commenced on July 17th along the C.N.R. 
right of way, starting at Key Junction. This was one of the more 
hazardous locations where the beaver were damming culverts and flooding 
the track. All traps were lifted on September 11/59 at which time a 
total of 83 beaver had been taken from the nuisance areas along this 
right of way from Key Junction to Parry Sound with a limited number 
coming from nuisance areas along Hwy. 69. Of the 83 beaver trapped 
58 were aged. After several attempts at sexing kits, with no success, 
we abandoned them on the advice of Rod Standfield, Biologist, Laple 
and only sexed adult animals. 

The following shows the number of animals tagged, sexed and 
aged during this operation. 



hale Adult F emale Adult Kits 
20 19 19 



The remaining 25 beaver trapped either escaped or died before they 
could be tagged and sexed. Of these 25, eight were late kits. 

The animals were released in lakes located 24 to 48 miles 
south of Big Trout Lake in the Patricia's. These lakes were designated 
by numbers 59-15, 59-16, 59-17, 59-18, 59-19, 59-20, 59-21. 

The following shows the number of beaver tagged, released 
and location of releases 



- 26 - 



Releasing Date 



Aug. 9th, 1959 59-19 
Aug. 22, 1959 
Sept. 13, 1959 



Lake 


No. of Animals 


Adults 


Sex 


kit 


59-19 


17 


3 
7 


Male 

Female 


2 


59-16 


15 


5 
6 


kale 

Female 


4 


59-20 


17 


k 7 

6 


kale 
Female 


o 



* One adult male and one adult unknown escaped at Parry Sound 
after being tagged. 

The animals were transported from trap to truck, boat, or 
track motor car, by coarse, meshed, large jute bags. Thence they were 
transferred into mink holding pens approximately 20" x 20" x 40", 
screened on four sides with boxed ends. These pens were also used 
when transporting the beaver in the aircraft to the point of release. 
Jute bags were also used when necessary to conserve aircraft space. 

Tags were placed in both ears of these animals with the 
exception of four animals whose ears were torn when attempting to 
affix the second tag. *11 animals were tattooed with a letter and 
number on the loose skin high on the muscle on the hind leg. This 
was accomplished by putting the beaver in a bag head first, and hold- 
ing one hind leg and the tail. The fur was then clipped close with 
a pair of sharp, round-end scissors. The need cannot be overempha- 
sized of using round end scissors since we suffered an accident by 
using the sharp pointed ones, there will be less danger to man and 
beast. The clipped portion of skin was then pulled taut and the 
tattoo affixed. This operation can best be done by three men, one 
holding the forepart of the animal, one the hind leg and tail, the 
third doing the clipping and tattooing. 

All animals arrived at their destination in a healthy 
condition. A few animals developed air sickness but recuperated when 
given a short "bath 5 ' in a lake approximately half way to point of 
release. This usually happened in very hot weather. 

The standard Bailey beaver live-trap was used for the 
project. 

Some attempts were made to drain ponds and retrieve the 
beaver with dip nets. This operation netted us six beaver, but did 
not prove economical since it required too much man power (at least 
four men) to catch the beaver escaping from the pond. 



- 27 - 

A total of 34 animals were lost during this operation*. 
Twenty-one escaped from holding pens and 13 died. Seven of the 13 
that died were late kits. Three were drowned in traps and three 
adults died, possibly due to trap injuries or fighting. Of the 21 
animals that escaped 12 worked their way out through holes made by 
failure of the wire lacing holding the mesh together. This wire 
rusts under water and breaks quite easily after a couple of weeks 
immersion. Six were lost due to carelessness in handling and under- 
estimating a beaver's strength and agility in climbing. 

There was a total of 183 man-days spent on this project 
including the men's time accompanying the animals to the point of 
release by aircraft. 

a total of eight trap-nights was required to catch each 
animal. 

Other than beaver there were five muskrats and one turtle 
taken in these traps. 

The total cost of the operation was ;725°63, used as follows' 

Salaries for men Q .75^ per hour ...o.... $330.75 

Travel, mileage, meals etc .... $266,64 

Maintenance, Groceries, wire, scissors, etc ^12$,24 

TOTAL 1725.63 

v->oscr per animaj. trapped ........ o. ..•»»•••. o.o.....o.. o. (i\- 

Cost per animal released 14»3l 

(not including air transport) 

We had the use of a total of 14 live beaver traps to do this 
trapping, but at no time were they all set at once. The majority of 
these traps were old and in need of repair. At least ten beaver 
escaped from these traps after being caught, due to poor conditions 
of the traps. 

Several extra men were employed occasionally on this project, 
all white trappers. They were hired periodically when our men were 
moved to a remote location with only means of transportation being 
train and track motor-car. 

We believe that this operation could be carried on more 
economically by giving several Conservation Officers a few traps and 
pens with which to take the nuisance beaver in their own patrol areas. 
Large holding pens would be located centrally. 

Conservation Officers W. Watts, Britt P. 0., and Murray Rusk, 
Parry Sound, were mainly responsible for the trapping. Assistance 
was also given by our Boat Captain, J. A. Dube' and the ranging staff. 



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- 29 - 

RABBIT, HARE AND FOX HARVEST, 
LAKE HURON DISTRICT, 1959-60 

by 

R. E. Mason 

Abstract 

Conservation Officers collected hunter bag information 
from hunters in the field during the period from mid- 
October, 1959 to February 29, I960. In the 30 regula- 
ted townships this information was supplemented with 
a hunter mail bag survey in which information was 
solicited from 10% of regulated township licence 
purchasers. Of the four species considered, European 
hare comprised 47% of the total bag, cottontails 42%, 
snowshoe hare 9% and red fox 1%. The low harvest of 
red fox is presumably due to the recent rabies epizoo- 
tic. The average hunter success for the four species 
during the 1959-1960 hunting season was 0.16 animals 
per man-hour. In Waterloo County cottontail hunting 
showed an improvement over the 195^-1959 season with 
24% more cottontails shot per man-hour of hunting. 



I ntroduction 

Cottontails, European hare, varying hare, and red fox are 
considered in this report. The period covered in the report is from 
mid October 1959> to February 29, I960, which dates include the 
regulated township season on rabbits and foxes. 

P rocedure 

Conservation Officers collected hunter bag information during 
personal contact with hunters in the field, and recorded the data on 
standard district forms. In the thirty regulated townships, this 
information was supplemented with a hunter mail bag survey, in which 
information was solicited from 10% of regulated township licence 
purchasers. 

The district forms used to record the information include 
several species of upland game. This makes the separation of hunting 
effort per species impossible. For the purpose of this report, it 
is presumed that a hunter will shoot most species of game indiscri- 
minately when in season, and therefore all hunters reporting during 
the period of the report are considered potential hunters of the four 
species concerned. 



30 - 



Comparison of the average hunter success between townships 
on this assumption introduces no biases when the four species are 
considered together. Such a comparison is made to indicate the 
relative distribution of hunting success over the district, regardless 
of species. 

Considering rabbits, hares, and foxes separately to obtain 
relative hunting success on this assumption however does result in 
biased estimates as these species are not generally distributed north 
to south over the district. The bias has the affect of dispropor- 
tionately lowering the average hunter success figure for any one 
species. This can be somewhat compensated for by setting wide limits 
for the average success figure. It should be realized however^ that 
above average hunting will probably be prevalent in the animal's 
range, and that this is most likely due to the biased estimate of the 
average success figure. 

This does not affect the use of the data for comparison of 
relative hunting success either between townships or between years 
as long as the data are handled in the same manner. The danger lies 
in using the hunting success figure individually for rabbits, hares, 
or foxes as an absolute number. 

Separation of the data according to distribution of the 
species might overcome this difficulty, however huntable populations 
of either cottontails or snowshoe hare occur in isolated areas out- 
side their normal range. Exclusion of information from these areas 
is considered not desirable as it would not indicate the entire 
relative distribution of hunting success for the district. 

Results 



in Table I 



Average hunting success, for the four species is presented 



TABLE I - Hunting Success 



Total Hunters 
Total Man- hours 
Total Game Bagged 
Success Per I^an-hour 



Kail Bag Survey 


Of. 


fleers' Reports 


Totals 


361 
1,926 
173 
0,09 




1,569 
6,505 
1,139 

0.17 


1,930 

1,312 

0.16 



As can be seen from the above table, the mail bag survey 
data lowered the overall hunting success figure. This may be due to 
biases in this type of survey, or may be due to the fact hunters were 
reporting a whole day's hunt. The data collected by officers usually 
represent part of a day v s hunt as the party is contacted while hunting. 
This is evidenced by the 5-3 hours per man according to the mail bag 
survey, and the 4.2 hours per man according to officer's reports. 






- 31 - 

Considering individual townships, inclusion of the mail bag 
survey had the effect of raising the average hunter success in nine 
townships, and lowering it in eight. One township remained the same. 
In the broad classification of hunter success used on the accompanying 
maps, only three townships were significantly affected. Wilmot 
township was lowered from above average to average, Blenheim lowered 
from above average to below average, and Puslinch raised from below 
average to average. In these cases, the inclusion of the mail bag 
data substantially increased the numbers of hunters surveyed. Because 
of this, and because the data did not have the effect of dispropor- 
tionately raising or lowering the average hunting success per township, 
the mail bag survey data are included. 

TABLE II - Species Composition of Bag 



Species Number Percent 

European Hare 620 47 

Cottontail 553 42 

Snowshoe Hare 122 9 

Red Fox 12 1 



TOTALS 1,312 99 



It is interesting to note the importance of European hare. 
The low harvest of foxes is presumed due to the 195$-59 rabies 
epizootic. 

The relative hunting success for the four species together 
and separately is presented for the district on the following maps.** 
Townships are classified as average or above or below average. The 
limits for the 'average' classification are indicated on the map, and 
have been arbitrarily selected to range around the following means, 

mean total game per hunter-hour 0.16 

mean cottontails per hunter-hour 0.07 

mean European hare per hunter-hour 0.07 

mean snowshoe hare per hunter-hour 0.014 

Means for each species are calculated using total hunters 
and total hours applied to each species. Comparative data for pre- 
vious years are not available. Below average townships include 
townships where the species were not represented in the data. 
Comparisons of absolute values used are presented for each township 
in the appendix. 

Hunting success figures are not presented for red fox 
because of the comparatively few shot. Townships in which foxes 
were shot are indicated on the map. 



A series of five maps accompanied the original report now on file 
in the Fish and Wildlife Library, kaple. 



- 32 - 



Comparative figures for cottontail harvest are available 
for three years from Waterloo County. This information was collected 
by the local Conservation Officer for a project report, Select local 
cottontail hunters were asked to submit results of their hunting 
annually over the three year period. These data are especially suited 
to evaluating relative cottontail success from year to year as the 
same men were reporting each year, hunting was done in the same area 
each year, and effort, techniques, and recording have been relatively 
constant over that timeo 



Results are presented in Table III« 
TaBLE III - Hunting S uccess Waterloo Coun ty 









Number 

Hours 

2,630 
1,287 
1,651 












Hunt: 
Seasc 


Lng 
>n 

-58 

■59 
■60 


Number 
Hunters 

45 
46 

44 


C 


Number 

Dt con tails 


C 
P 


ottc 
er I 

0, 
0, 

0, 


mtails 
xan-hour 


1957- 
1958- 
1959- 




1,589 
1,930 
1,983 


,60 
.67 
.83 



From table III, it would appear that cottontail hunting has 
improved by 0.16 cottontails per man-hour over 1958-59, and improved 
by 0.23 cottontails per man-hour over 1957-58. Expressing these 
differences as percentages of the ratio for the appropriate year, the 
percentages are + 21$ and ••:• 38% respectively,. 

It is interesting to note comparative red fox harvests 
for Waterloo County since 1958. This information is available because 
of the bounty paid on foxes by the county- Prise money is awarded 
on a bi-annual basis to the person shooting the most foxes. The 
local officer is responsible for tallying the records which he submits 
to the county. Since many hunters collaborate, registering as a 
single hunter, hunting success can not be calculated. Harvest per 
unit area is however available. 

In 1958, 785 foxes were harvested from 257,939 acres, or 
0.33 foxes per 100 acres. In 1959, 154 foxes we^e harvested from 
257,939 acres, or 0.02 foxes per ] 0C acres, 

It is not intended to intimate that the increase in cotton- 
tail hunting success is due to the decrease in fox populations as any 
such correlation would be apparent only after the analysis of much 
more data taking into account other possible variables, such as 
cottontail reproductive success related to meteorological conditions 
over the three year period. 

Sex ratio information was also collected, but has not been 
included in this report because of general confusion in the identifi- 
cation of the male penis and female clitoris. 



- 33 - 



Summary and Conclusions 



(1) Of the four species considered, European hare comprised 47% of 
the total bag, cottontails 1+2%, snowshoe hare 9%, and red fox 
1%» The low harvest of red fox is presumably due to the recent 
rabies epizootic 

(2) The average hunter success for the four species during the 
19 59-1960 hunting season was 0.16 animals per man-hour. 

(3) On the basis of information collected from Waterloo County, 
cottontail hunting has improved over the 1958-1959 season, with 
21+% more cottontails shot per man-hour of hunting. 

(4) Distribution of relative hunting success is indicated on 
attached maps of the district. 

References 

Kerner, F. H. The status of the Cottontail as a Game Species in 
Waterloo County, 1959-1960, unpubl. 






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- 37 



SIMPLE METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF INCISORS FROM MOOSE MANDIBLES 

by 
Jo E. Cull it on 



Abstract 

A simple method for removing incisors from moose jaws 
is described. This method eliminates the prolonged 
process of boiling the jaws in order to obtain incisors 
for aging purposes <. 



This procedure used in the Gogama District during the 
extraction of incisors from moose mandibles for aging purposes 
proved very adequate and speedy. 

Equipment Required 

Stationary vice, hammer, ^" cold chisel s steel knife 
approximately 12" long, 3/32" thick and 1 - lj" broad (such as a 
sharpened mill bandsaw blade) small knife, draw knife or bone 
scraper such as used in taxidermy work. 

Procedure 

Set moose jaw in vice with the incisors up and in working 
position. With the cold chisel and hammer knock the number two 
incisor on either side out„ This affords working space to get at 
the number one (centre two) incisors. Set the knife edge into the 
jaw between the number one incisor and the number two root on the 
left and using the hammer tap the knife edge between the tooth roots 
until it is well into the jaw. Repeat this procedure on the other 
side of the jaw. This will give a "V" shaped cut. 

Next place the knife edge between the two number one 
incisors using care so that the teeth remain intact. Gently tap the 
knife edge between the roots of the two number one teeth until the 
centre cut reaches the outside cuts in the jawbone. 

When the preceding three incisions are completed it is a 
simple matter to force the two number one teeth out using the fingers. 
Once the teeth have been forced out, in the rough state, the jaw 
is removed from the vice and the teeth inserted for scraping with a 
small knife or drawknife. 



: ' ■ ■ ■ • : 



- 33 - 
Method of Removal of Incisors From Moose Jaws 



Equipment 
Required 



Bench Vise 
Hammer 
Cold Chisel 
Cleaning Knife 
Cutting Blade 
( illustrated) 




Cutting Edge 



Cutting Blade 

Adapted from 3/32" 
stock hard steel 
such as large mill 
bandsaw bladeo 



Method 

(1) Lower portion of jaw held fast in bench vise. 

(2) Nos. 2L and 2R are broken off at gum line with hammer and cold 
chisel. 

(3) When 2L and 2R are removed, use cutting blade and hammer to 
produce cuts A, 3 & C in that order. Take care that the No. 1 
incisors are not damaged during cutting. 

ik) When cuts a, B & C are complete, both No. 1 incisors can be 

removed with finger pressure, or if still tight a gentle hammer 
tap will remove them. Take care again that the No. 1 incisors 
are not damaged. 

(5) When both No. 1 incisors have been removed, they can be cleaned 
free of clinging meat and bone with a knife or similar object. 



- 39 - 



KENORA DISTRICT MOOSE OBSERVATIONS, 1959-1960 

by 
M. Linklater 



Abstract 

A special study plot was set up during the winter of 
1959-60 to try and determine how varying weather condi« 
tions affect our moose counts. The plot chosen for 
the study was one selected from the master map of the 
195&-59 moose inventory. It is identified by the 
co-ordinate number J2-17 and is situated 55 air miles 
southeast of Kenora. The plot encompasses an area of 
2 5 square miles. 

During the period from January 5/60 up to March 22/60, 
the plot was censused from aircraft on ten occasions. 
Counts varied from seven on March 22nd to 29 on two 
occasions? the overall total recorded was 178 for an 
average of 17.8 moose each time the plot was covered. 

Reciprocal flights were arranged by crews from the 
Fort Frances and Kenora Districts to cover a plot in 
each District to test the accuracy of counts. Results 
from the flights indicate that familiarity of the 
plot is a factor in the numbers of moose tallied. 
Weather conditions or chill factors do not appear to 
have any great influence on the counts. 



Acknowledgments 

Acknowledgment is due to Carl Schenk, District Biologist, 
for his assistance in the analysis and his help in the preparation 
of this report. 

Staff members who assisted in the work include J. Kincaid, 
Pilot" Sr. Conservation Officer P. A. Thompson; Conservation Officers 
A. R. Olsen and Don Busch; and Ranger Terry Humberstone. 

Introduction 

The moose inventory work carried out during the winter of 
1958-59 in the "./estern Region produced results which were deemed to 
be adequately informative for the time being, without a similar 
program being necessary during the winter of 1959-60. On this account, 
it was decided in the Kenora District that more value might be derived 
from a special study during the winter of 1959-60, involving one 
particular plot in which an attempt would be made to determine if 
and how varying weather conditions affect our counts of moose. 
Particular attention was to be devoted to the chill factor, this 



- 40 - 

being a function of wind, temperature and relative humidity. 

In addition, an arrangement was made with the Fort Frances 
District to undertake reciprocal flights of our respective study 
plots in order to determine whether similar counts are made by 

ifferent crewso Information concerning this particular portion of 
the winter's work will be presented separately following the presen- 
tation of the weather study,, 

How Plot Was Chosen 

Initially, thought was directed towards carrying out the 
survey in a location where ingress and egress of animals to the 
study plot could be ascertained. However, consideration of this 
possibility soon indicated that the selection of such an area, perhaps 
one of our larger islands on Lake of the Woods, would be unsuitable 
from the point of view of numbers of animals present. In order to 
obtain a plot where numerical differences corresponding with varying 
weather conditions might be great enough to be significant, the 
highly desirable feature of being able to plot ingress and egress 
had to be sacrificed. Although some hope was entertained of still 
being able to do so on the inland plot selected, long time lapses between 
sorties and difficulty of following tracks where certain cover types 
were present, soon dispelled any notions of accomplishing this impor- 
tant aspect of the study. 

The plot ultimately selected was one from the master map 
of the 195&-59 inventory with 47 moose being recorded at that time* 
It is identified by the co-ordinate number J2-17 and is situated 
fifty-five air miles southeast of Kenora and 22 miles due south of 
Vermilion Bay The plot encompasses an area of 25 square miles. 

Description of Plot 

The general topography of the plot is rough, rocky uplands 
with an abundance of swamps scattered throughout in the low lying 
sections. Lakes comprise ±L±.2% of the total area and these waters 
are well distributed over most of the plot. About 65% of the plot 
was burned over in 1933* with the fire being most severe in the south- 
west portion (Section 5 on plot). This particular segment of the 
plot has regenerated to a heavy stand of Jackpine with very little 
understory. 

The remainder of the plot consists of stands of mature 
spruce interspersed with large stands of mixed woods. Trembling 
aspen and white birch are predominant in most of the mixed stands, 
and by far the greater proportion of the trees in these stands are 
in the early stages of development. This young growth is particularly 
noticeable along the shores of the lakes and near the tops of many 
of the hills. Such growth appears to be typical of the surrounding 
area for miles and contributes to excellent habitat conditions for 
moose throughout this portion of the Kenora District. 



- 41 - 



Crews and. Counting Technique 



As much as possible, the same crew was used to complete the 
counts of moose on the plot each time, but absolute consistency in 
this respect could not be maintained. As in the inventory work comp- 
leted during the winter of 195&-59, a beaver aircraft and a crew 
consisting of pilot, navigator and two observers were employed. All 
members of the crew assisted in the spotting of moose on the plot » 
As much as possible the aircraft was flown at an altitude of $00 feet 
and a speed of SO m.p.h. Six divisions of the plot were contrived, 
based on natural topographical boundaries (see map)^ the aircraft 
circled to achieve adequate coverage of each section on each flight. 

W eather 

'leather conditions for the censusing period were obtained 
from the records kept at the Kenora Airport by the Meteorological 
Branch, Department of Transport . This station lies approximately 
55 air miles northwest of the plot itself and possible discrepancies 
between the figures provided from this source and actual conditions 
on the plot for certain days are to be given due consideration. 
However, since it was impossible to obtain some of the required 
information at the study site, it was decided to utilize completely 
the Kenora weather data. 

The months of January, February and March were characterized 
by a general lack of temperature extremes and light snowfall. Total 
snowfall for the three month period was 5«3l inches, with little or 
no crust being recorded. Snow depths varied throughout the District 
with maximum accumulation on the plot at any one time being 17 inches. 

Results 

The initial flight over the study area was made on January 
5th, I960 with coverage of the plot being terminated on March 22nd, 
I960. During this period, the plot was censused on ten separate 
occasions with a total of 17$ moose being recorded. The cumulative 
total of moose believed to be on the plot but not sighted was 147. 

The following table indicates censusing dates, moose counted 
and information on weather. The data dealing with daily mean tempera- 
ture, wind direction, mean wind velocity and relative humidity were 
obtained from the Meteorological Branch, Department of Transport. 
This station is situated at the airport approximately three miles 
northeast of the Town of Kenora. 



TABLE I - 



- 42 - 



Date 



Moose 
Counted 



Daily 

Mean 
Tempo 



Wind 

Direction 
Velocity 



Relative 
Humidity 



Snow 
Depth 
on Plot 



Crust Temp 
Condition on 
on Plot Plot 



Jan. 5 


17 


~ 


17° 


SW 13 


86 


11" 


A 


- 2° 


Jan, 20 


29 


+ 


2° 


N 6 


39 


11" 


A 


+ 10° 


Feb. 2 


26 


+ 


l&o 


S 14 


75 


15" 


A 


+ 30° 


Feb. 11 


9 


~ 


5° 


N 8 


76 


15" 


A 


+ 8° 


Feb. 12 


14 







S 8 


72 


15" 


A 


- 5° 


Feb. 17 


17 


+ 


5° 


NW 9 


71 


17" 


A 


- 5° 


Feb. 19 


29 


- 


3° 


N 5 


67 


16" 


A 


- 16° 


Feb. 24 


IS 


i- 


3° 


NE 12 


69 


16" 


A 


+ 15° 


Mar. 4 


12 




0° 


W 8 


80 


15" 


A 


+ 2° 


Mar. 22 


7 


+ 


^0 


SE 10 


73 


16" 


B 


+ 20° 



Table II presents the numbers of moose recorded on each 
Division of the plot. These divisions were selected on the basis of 
topographical features within the plot area. For reference refer to 
the map. 

TABLE II - Number of Moose Seen 









1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




Divisions 


of Plot 


Total 


Jan. 


5 




2 


6 


nil 


5 


1 


3 


17 


Jan. 


20 




4 


nil 


1 


8 


5 


11 


29 


Feb. 


2 




4 


2 


11 


1 


nil 


8 


26 


Feb. 


11 




3 


1 


4 


1 


nil 


nil 


9 


Feb, 


12 




5 


1 


5 


2 


nil 


1 


14 


Feb. 


17 




3 


3 


5 


nil 


2 


4 


17 


Feb. 


19 




5 


1 


10 


7 


nil 


6 


29 


Feb. 


24 




5 


2 


2 


7 


nil 


2 


18 


Mar. 


4 




nil 


5 


5 


1 


nil 


1 


12 


Mar. 


22 




6 

37_ 


.1 
22 


nil 
43 


nil 
32 


nil 

8 


nil 

3o 


7 


TOTALS 




178 


Counts bv 


Different 


Crews 


on the 


Same P3 


.OuS 









. order to evaluate relative efficiencies of crews as 
considered 



an 



X 1 1 UJ. UCi o>_< cv< 

influential factor to be considered in moose inventory work, reci- 
procal flights of the two study plots in the Kenora and Fort Frances 
Districts were arranged. 



- 43 - 



The Fort Frances plot was flown by the crews from each 
District on February 10, with the crew from Fort Frances covering 
the plot first o The Kenora crew flew in to make their count as soon 
as possible after the departure of the other aircraft from the study 
area. In this way, it was assured that the number of animals on the 
plot was probably unchanged and that weather conditions were consis- 
tant for the two counts. 

On February 2k? similarly arranged flights were made over 
the Kenora study plot so that comparative counts could be established. 

The Fort Frances plot was located 28 miles northeast of 
Fort Frances in the Big Sawbill Lake area. The Kenora plot was J2-17, 
the same as was involved in the weather study. 

The results of the two series of counts are shown in the 
table as follows* 

TABLE III - Counts Made on Reciprocal Flights 



Date 



Feb. 10 
Feb. 24 



Study Plot 

Fort Frances 
Kenora 



Fort Frances Count 



30 moose 
12 moose 



Kenora Count 

13 moose 
IB moose 



The great difference between the counts made by the two 
crews on the Fort Frances plot was twice the difference which resulted 
from the second trial on the Kenora plot. Since each crew counted 
more moose on their own plot, however, there is a definite suggestion 
that familiarity with an area greatly influences the count derived. 
The fact that the differences established were quite dissimilar, 
indicates that other disrupting factors were influential as well. 
The Fort Frances crew followed definite flight lines and circled a 
particular area when evidence of one or more moose presented itself. 
The Kenora crew, on the other hand, employed a circling technique, 
with the plot being broken up into several sections on the basis of 
topographical features. These two different procedures possibly vary 
in their effectiveness either one way or the other. Did the greater 
differential in favour of the Fort Frances crew stem from the fact 
that individual moose might hav- been tallied more than once through 
the employment of their counting technique? Or was this differential 
a result of a better counting technique being used by Fort Frances 
which substantially offset the greater familiarity of the Kenora crew 
with their own plot? As well, individual differences among crew 
members might have contributed to the somewhat disjointed results. 



- 44 - 

It is certainly unfortunate that the next obvious step was 
not reached to have the two aircraft complete flights on the same 
day over a study area with which both crews were completely unfamiliar 
Such an experiment would obviate the familiarity factor and would 
afford better measures of the influence of individual differences and/ 
or different counting techniques as variables in our counts. However, 
although insufficient trials were run, the completed work indicated 
that an initial flight over a plot probably provides a low count and 
also suggests that crews do operate with varying degrees of effective- 
ness. 

S ummary 

During the winter of 1959-60, a special study was conducted 
on moose in a 25 square mile area in order to determine if and when 
weather conditions affect our counts of moose. 

During the period from January 5/60 up to March 22nd, the 
plot was censused on ten occasions. 

Counts varied from seven on March 22/60 to 29 on two 
occasions, the overall total recorded was 17$ for an average of 17. B 
moose each time the plot was covered. 

Reciprocal flights were arranged by crews from the Fort 
Frances and Kenora Districts to cover a plot in each District to 
test the accuracy of counts. Results from the flights indicate that 
familiarity of the plot is a factor in the numbers of moose tallied 
Weather conditions or chill factors do not appear to have any great 
influence on the counts. 






- 45 



Moose Study Plot, Kenora District 




J2-17 



Scale - 1 mile =1.5 inches 









- 46 - 

KAMLOOPS TROUT REARING EXPERIMENT NO. 7, 
HILL'S LAKE HATCHERY 

by 
N. D. Patrick 

.abstract 

Karaloops Trout are difficult to rear in hatcheries 
under normal operating conditions. This experiment 
was designed to investigate the possibility of rearing 
Karaloops Trout by warming the water and altering the 
diet. A water warmer was developed consisting of a 
1000 watt immersion water heater mounted in a copper 
cylinder so that there was a continuous flow of water 
over the element. This warmer successfully raised 
the temperature of the hatchery water a maximum of 
about l6°f . The initial cost was less than ,20.00 and 
it cost ,.11.00 per month to operate. Karaloops Trout 
reared in water of about 55°f and fed on a diet of 
finely ground beef spleen had only a k»k% mortality 
while Karaloops raised in normal cold hatchery water 
and fed the regular ground liver diet during the same 
period had a 70.1% mortality. It was estimated that 
between ten and twenty thousand yearling Kamloops 
Trout could be raised by installing four units in the 
present hatchery system. 



Introduction 

Kamloops trout has been a difficult fish to establish in 
Northern Ontario. They apparently do very well in suitable waters, 
and the difficulty has arisen with respect to supplying a sufficient 
quantity of hatchery stock. Shipping stock from Southern Ontario is 
extremely expensive. We have been unable to successfully rear 
Kamloops at Hill's Lake. The problem at Hill y s Lake appears to be 
one of water temperatures firstly, and diet secondly. 

P urpose 

To investigate the possibility of rearing Kamloops trout 
at Hill's Lake by warming the water and altering the diet» 

method 

A water warmer is to be developed to warm the water of a 
single trough to an average of about 55°f • Kamloops are to be reared 
in this water and fed on a diet of finely ground beef spleen. A 
control is to be run rearing a number of Kamloops in the normal 
hatchery water, fed on the same diet. Daily records of temperature, 
and mortality are to be maintained, and the fish are to be weighed 
at regular intervals. 



- 47 - 



Observations 



(a) A water warmer was developed which admirably met the requirements 
of the experiment. This apparatus was designed by Bur. R. Duff, 
District Radio Technician, with suggestions from several other 
staff members. It consists of a 1000 watt immersion water heater 
mounted in a copper cylinder so that there is a continuous flow 
of water over the element. By regulating the flow of water over 
the element, and regulating the amount of cold water flowing into 
the trough, the water temperature may be regulated within one 

or two degrees. This unit will raise the hatchery water a 
maximum of about lo°f . The unit has now been in successful 
operation for over six months without difficulty. (See attached 
diagram. ) 

(b) The culture of the fish involved was carried out by Mr. P. Graf, 
Assistant Hatchery Manager at Hill ? s Lake. The original cold- 
water rearing attempt was made with eggs received from British 
Columbia in 1957* The other fish came from eggs collected by 
Mr. Graf at Purdy Lake, Grenfell Township, in May of 195$. 

(c) The following data were recorded: 

(1) In July, 1957, 50,000 eyed eggs were received at Hill 9 s 
Lake from British Columbia. These were hatched in the 
normal hatchery water and fed the regular ground liver 
diet. Growth was poor, and losses high. By the summer 

of 195$ j %7»%% of the fish had died and the remainder were 
extremely small. On January 2$, 195$> 500 of these (a 
sample of the general run), weighed only 111.5 gms. 

Mr. Graf examined the losses from these fish regularly 
and pathology reports were submitted for each examination. 
The fish suffered from an infection suspected as Lentospor a 
cerebralis . and a gill inflammation, and in the later part 
of the year, there was a strong suggestion of a lipoid 
degeneration of the liver. During the period February 3rd 
to Larch 2nd, 195$? a close check was made and a change in 
diet was effected. The fish showed some improvement, but 
their general condition by this time was such that little 
recovery could be expected. 

(2) During May of 195$* some 4*000 Kamloops eggs were taken 
from Purdy Lake in Grenfell Township near Kirkland Lake. 
The eggs from one of the fish, a dead female, were poor 
quality to begin with, but were included in the experiment. 
These eggs were incubated in the normal hatchery water, 
hatched and reared until July 22nd when the water heater 
was available and the experiment began. By July 22nd, only 
2,360 fish remained from the original egg collection. These 
were divided into two groups, a group of 1,342 fish being 
placed in the warmed water, and the remaining 1,018 being 
left in the regular hatchery water. 



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49 



The "warm" water was normally about 54° -- 56°f«j with extre- 
mes of from 53° to 63°. The hatchery water temperature 
varied during this period from 41° to 53° with an average 
of about 44° - 4o°f « These temperature records were taken 
during, part of July, and all of August, September and 
October. 

At the end of October., the fish were all placed in "cold 11 
water as the warming apparatus was needed for an incubation 
experiment. All the fish in this experiment were "free' 1 ' 
fed on a diet of finely ground spleen a The food was placed 
on holders in the water and was available at all times <■ 
There was a short period when spleen was not available, 
(Pathology Report September 3C> 195$) and fish were fed 
liver. All fish immediately lost their desire to feed, 
those in the cold water showing a subsequent increase in 
mortality e The fish in warm water were feeding normally 
again in one week. 

The data are as follows" Eggs collected - Lay 15" 

Eyes first observed - June 19c 

Hatched - July 7. 

Yolk sac absorbed, fish start to 

swim and eat - July 19 • 
Total incubation period - 53 days 

in cola water. 



Weights 



Weight series of warm water fishs- for each weight, 500 of 
the average run were weighed. 

Aug. 20 - 500 fish weighed 120 gms. 

Sept. 4 - 500 fish weighed 200 gmso 

Sept- 26 • 500 fish weighed 410 gms 

Oct. 29 - 500 fish weighed Si 5 gm3 

Dec* n 2 - 500 fish w< J ;hed 1060 gms 

Weigh" series o± cold water fishs- foi each weight, 500 of 
the average run were weighed* 

Aug. 20 - 500 fish weighed 50 gms« 
Sept. 4 ■" 500 fish weighed 64 £ms« 

Note s Weighing was discontinued at this point because the 
fish were unable to withstand tfhe handling. A sample of the larger 
fish in this experiment were transferred to another trough on 
September 20th. These fish appeared to be in fair condition with 
better than usual growth for the cold water* 



c J 



Dec. 12 - 50 fish weighed 55 gmsc 

(500 fish would weigh 550 gms.) 



- 50 - 

hortality 

From the time the experiment was started (July 22nd), a 
separate record of mortality was kept. From July 22nd, 195$, to 
January 3rd, 1959> the loss in the warm water was 59 fish or 4«4%» 
The loss in the cold water fish during the same period was 714 or 
70.156. 

Finally, the following remarks by Iir. Graf in his report 
are worthy of note. 

Warm water fishs "Average size of the fish is 2 1/2" - 3 t? . 
Condition of fish is good. Weight and size is normal. At a 
temperature of 54° - 56°, fish had the best appetite. Mortality from 
the day of first feeding up to date was very low." 

Cold water fishs the following remarks from the Pathology 
Report of September 30, 195$> apply - "Condition of fish is not good. 
Colour of fish is light. Fish have no appetite and lack blood. All 
fish in this trough are suffering." 

C onclusion 

There is no doubt that a limited supply of Kamloops trout 
may be raised at Hill's Lake through the use of the water warmer. 
Eggs will hatch earlier and even better summer growth than reported 
here can be expected. The initial cost of this apparatus is small 
(less than .20.00) and it costs pll.OO per month to operate. The 
present hatchery system will permit four units to be installed, and 
by using these over a four month period, it should be possible to 
rear somewhere between ten and twenty thousand yearlings. 



- 51 - 



WINTER FISHING, PARRY SOUND DISTRICT, 1959 

by 
C. A. Rettie 



Abstract 

A creel census was conducted to assess ice fishing 
during the months of January, February and March in 
the lakes of Parry Sound District. Selected lakes 
were checked for anglers twice a week during the 
winter. As a result of the data gathered it was lear- 
ned that 57$ anglers fished a total of 1,900 hours on 
2& waters and captured 16.3 Lake Trout, 53 Pike, 36 
Whitefish, 24 Ling, 55 Perch and 10 Smelt. Owing 
mainly to extremely severe weather conditions the 
number of anglers this year was estimated at only 30% 
of previous years. Live minnows were the most popular 
bait used. Tables showing fishing pressure, average 
catch per angler and fishing success by month are 
presented. 



Ice fishing is fast becoming a very popular sport in this 
forest district and as such has caused some controversy as to its 
effect on fishing throughout the rest of the year. In an effort to 
appraise this sport it was decided to conduct a creel census and 
obtain as much data as possible from all anglers throughout the 
District. 

In early January letters were sent to each Conservation 
Officer outlining this plan and naming some lakes in each patrol area 
that should be given priority in this work. These priority lakes were 
to be checked for anglers at least twice a week, but no opportunity 
was to be missed to gather data from an angler on any waters » 
Summaries of this creel census data were sent at the end of each 
month to District Office for compilation. This program continued 
throughout January, February and March, after which this sport almost 
ceased because of ice conditionso Therefore this report covers only 
the months of January, February and Larch, This collection of data 
will continue throughout the year and another report will be made 
for the open water period. 

By February it was quite apparent that not nearly as many 
people would indulge in this sport as in previous years, possibly 
because of the extremely severe conditions experienced throughout 
the district. The number of anglers this year has been estimated at 
only 30% of previous years. However 573 anglers were checked as 
compared to 709 anglers for the same period the previous year. This 



I 






. 



- 52 - 

was due to increased effort on the part of all officers. These 573 
anglers fished a total of 1,900 hours on 2$ waters and captured 163 
Lake Trout, 53 Pike, 36 Uhitefish, 24 Ling, 55 Perch and 10 Smelt. 
The most popular bait was live minnows. 

The following tables give a breakdown of fishing by waters. 



Symbols for Tables 

* Indicates species angled for - other species caught incidental. 

/ Indicates values less than figure shown. 

Fishing Pressure Z % of average number of rod hours per days checked 



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- ^o - 

Results of Census 

The majority of the creel census data was gathered on 
weekends and on the mid-week half holiday when larger numbers of 
anglers would be out. An estimate by the officers places the number 
of anglers checked at only 20% of the total. However the figures 
we have should be a good indication of the fishing throughout the 
district. All anglers checked were most co-operative and several 
maintained census records of their own and turned them in at the end 
of their fishing season. Lack of proper understanding of a census 
made some of these volunteer records of little value as the angler 
only recorded his successful trips. Infractions of the Fisheries 
Act were at a minimum. Of the total number of anglers checked, 15 
were convicted for fishing with more than two lines and two were 
convicted for fishing in closed waters. 

Table I shows that Lake Nipissing was the most heavily 
fished lake. The main species sought in this water was pike. Two 
other lakes also produced pike fishing and of these Barton Lake was 
the best producer. The remaining 25 waters were fished for Lake 
Trout chiefly, with other species caught incidentally. Of these 
25 waters, Lake of Bays was most heavily fished but Trout Lake in 
Burpee Township produced most fish per angler. As indicated several 
lakes produced no fish at all. 

Table II shows that Fairy Lake produced most fish per hour, 
but a large portion of these were perch. Trout Lake is a close 
second and its production was all Lake Trout. 

March was the most popular period for fishing but the 
returns per hour of effort expended were better in February and 
January as shown in Table III. 

The average length of Lake Trout caught was 14»6 inches. 

Conclusion 

1. Winter fishing pressure in 1959 was below normal with few fish 
being taken. Even in a normal year winter fishing is only a small 
fraction of summer angling. 

2. Lake Trout is the most sought after species during winter months. 
Lore use should be made of our available whitefish supply. 

3. Winter fishing in the Parry Sound district this year will have a 
very negligible effect on the availability of fish to summer 
anglers. 

Acknowledgments 

Many thanks are due to all Conservation Officers of this 
District whose efforts made possible the creel census records used 
in this report. 



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